Vol 2-6 Mini Review

Preventing Hepatocellular Carcinoma: The Case for Childhood Intervention

Sania Amr1,2 and Christopher A. Loffredo3

1Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Maryland School of Medicine

2Marlene and Stuart Greenebaum Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland

3Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University, Washington DC

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is on the rise worldwide and in the US, and despite emerging treatment modalities, its overall prognosis remains poor; therefore, there is a need for preventing its development globally. The major factors contributing to HCC development, namely, infections with hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses, alcoholic cirrhosis, aflatoxin-contaminated food, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, metabolic syndrome, and smoking are modifiable; and prevention intervention can start in childhood.

Vaccination for hepatitis B, screening for and treatment of hepatitis C and intravenous drug users, education to avoid fatty liver, alcoholism, and substance use were shown to be effective ways to curb HCC incidence. A focus on reducing early childhood adversity and training young children to make healthy decisions has been strongly recommended as a prevention strategy to reduce most of HCC risk factors.

DOI: 10.29245/2578-2940/2018/6.1139 View / Download Pdf View Full Text
Vol 2-6 Mini Review

Ground-State Stem Cells: A Novel Approach for Adult Stem Cell Research

Wa Xian1,2*, Marcin Duleba3, Yutao Qi3, Rajasekaran Mahalingam3, Matthew Vincent4, Frank McKeon3

1Institute of Molecular Medicine, McGovern Medical School of University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA

2Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Texas McGovern Medical School, Houston, Texas 77030, USA

3Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204, USA

4Tract Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Marlborough, Massachusetts 01752, USA

A robust and reliable culture system of adult stem cells is essential for applying the cutting-edge technologies of drug screening, gene editing, and genomics to stem cell research necessary for breakthroughs in this field. In addition, personalized regenerative medicine based on autologous transplantation requires our ability to clone and expand the numbers of these stem cells in vitro. In comparison to the 3D "organoid" culture system that shows limited ability to propagate stem cells as the majority of cells are differentiated or transit amplifying cells, ground-state stem cell culture system is a novel technology that permits long-lived adult stem cells to maintain immaturity, self-renewal capacity, multi-potency and genomic stability despite long-term culturing in a 2D system. The robustness, reliability and easy-to-use features of this new technology bypass the deficiencies of 3D organoid culture systems and provided unlimited stem cell sources for research, therapeutic use, and drug discovery.

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